Although it has been experimentally tested many of the predictions made by the creators of the Big Bang theory, other theories also give the same results and, in some cases, explain phenomena that current theory fails to resolve.
The Big Bang is (although not the only) prevailing theory in the current physical model, which describe the origin of the universe … I almost put “explain”, but something you should understand about physics and science in general is that this is not directed to answer the “why”, but rather the “how” observable causes of things happen.
For example: “How did the universe originate?”. According to the Big Bang, this was caused by a major expansion. Instead, the question “Why is the universe originate?” Corresponds to more philosophical and metaphysical areas, which are not the central concern of science, for the thoughts and reasoning are invisible, while science refers to observable.
Made this little clarification, I press.
The name Big Bang was coined, curiously, an astronomer who opposed this theory, Sir Fred Hoyle, 1949, while trying to explain in graphic form the different theories about the origin of the universe.
It turns out that back in 1912, the American astronomer Vesto Slipher, noticed that galaxies seemed to be moving away from Earth all. In 1927, George Lemaître proposed that due to the expansion of the universe. And then in 1931, it raises the central idea of the Big Bang: that if we go back in time, the galaxies and the entire universe, will be more and more together, to be concentrated at a single point from which all emerged.
During that time, the prevailing theory was the steady state: argued that the universe had always been as we see now, and that its expansion is explained because he was always creating more stuff. In addition, the theory of Big Bang was the problem that sounded suspiciously religious, especially considering that George Lemaitre, besides physical, was a priest.
After World War II, the strongest cosmological theories were precisely those: the steady state and the Big Bang . The Big Bang predicted that, to comply with the cosmological principle-which says that seen from anywhere in the universe seems to be evenly distributed, ie is homogeneous watched “from a distance” (always has me curious resemblance that concept) – and like everything had started by a great energy expansion, there must be an “echo” distributed evenly throughout the universe. In other words, the echoes of the Big Bang, as a background radiation practically homogeneous.
In 1964, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, worked installing an ultrasensitive antenna at Bell Labs, where they found a persistent noise in the antenna, in the area of microwave, specifically 7.5 cm. They reviewed the antenna if they saw a bird had nested in it … but not cleaned. The noise was, no matter where phonecalls. All that remained to them, was to assume that radiation was coming from beyond our galaxy. In parallel, Dickes, Peebles and Wilkinson astrophysicists working at Princeton University, 60 km. away in research that predicted the existence of background radiation, with exactly the same characteristics as discovered by chance by Penzias and Wilson. A friend of Penzias told he had seen a preprint of the article (ie a version Draft researchers spread in a limited way, to get opinions and feedback), and contacted Dickes and his team. They decided to publish their results together, so that the theory of Big Bang achieved experimental support that did not possess the steady state theory, turning the Big Bang to the prevailing theory today.
For this, Penzias and Wilson received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1978.
Soon after, in 1968 and 1970, Stephen Hawking, George FR Ellis and Roger Penrose published research which arose at the beginning of the universe, necessarily a singularity of time and space should have happened. That is, a point at which physical laws disappear as we know.
In 1981, Alan Guth solves several mathematical and conceptual problems posed by model, saying it was an “inflationary period” where the universe expanded 10 26 times, a phenomenon that lasted a very short period (for our daily experience) lasted from the 10 -36 to 10-32 seconds after the Big Bang (that is one, preceded by 36 and 32 zeros, respectively!). It is at this precise point of expansion, when the four physical forces we know (gravity, electromagnetism, weak and strong nuclear) are distributed, the structure of the universe is defined, and also explains why the structure of the universe is flat, which It was confirmed in 1992 by the COBE mission NASA, which verified the existence of small anomalies in the background radiation (about the hundred-thousandth of the average intensity detected), which were predicted in 1970.
For his research, both as the COBE mission Guth received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 and 2006 respectively.
Currently, it is working to find out what role do matter and dark energy in this model (which would be excellent for that first was discovered what really are), and why the expansion of the universe appears to be accelerating.
Simple: What is the Big Bang?
It is a theory, supported by experimental data (background radiation redshift galaxies, etc.), which states the following:
- There was a time, about 15 billion years ago, when the entire cosmos, emerged from a point of infinite concentration containing all the energy of the universe (yes, all!).
- That point was necessarily a singularity in time and space , so it makes no sense to ask what was “before” the Big Bang, because as we go back in time, we reached the point where time itself is altered and it becomes meaningless.
- Once the universe arises from the singularity, a undergoes rapid expansion, in which the correlation of forces in the universe are defined, and the large-scale structure of the same. After that, the universe expansion rate decreases (which mysteriously begins to rise from 7 billion years ago).
- Subsequently, the universe cooled enough for there to be light as we know it, then you have enough to not only particles and energy.
- This model, in addition to the large-scale structure of the universe, explains why galaxies appear to be moving away from us and why the universe is homogeneous on a large scale (which has to do with the distribution of energy in the immediate aftermath of the Big Bang).
Although it is a theory supported by experimental data, this does not mean that the data can not be explained by other theoretical models. There are even variations within the standard model of theBig Bang. Here are some models. But there are other theories!
1. Cyclic Universe:
States that the universe goes through cycles of expansion ( Big Bang ) then maximum compression ( Big Crunch ), in an oscillatory manner.
It also implies that there are not only the three physical dimensions we know, but at least 8 more, so that the model is mathematically viable. This would imply an extraordinary wealth in the universe we know, and that is beyond our crude senses.
This experimental model has the advantage of not requiring the existence of a multiverse, that is, there is only the universe in which we are, so it would be easier to prove. It also explains why gravity is apparently the weakest strength of the four basic forces of nature (it may be because their energy is also distributed in the other dimensions we can not see).
2. Holographic Universe:
Juan Maldacena proposed in 1997 that the universe could be like a 3D hologram projected onto a sphere. In other words, the universe would be two-dimensional (flat), but we would appear to be three dimensional , the same way as a bank card hologram appears to have 3 dimensions.According to researchers at the Vienna University of Technology, it is a viable model of our reality.
3. Torsion of space-time:
Attractive theory of Nicolas Poplawski, who argues that the universe would behave like an object at the edge of a black hole, what makes us think both if possible the same will happen inside black holes, as it implies that There may be countless other universes.
4. Universe without beginning or end :
According to Roger Penrose, it is possible that the singularity at the beginning of the universe, has been apparent, giving space to a pre-existence of our universe.
This idea is also raised, from another angle, Ahmed Farag Ali and Saurya Das, who indicate that in addition, there is also a singularity where the universe is compressed over millions of years, but always remain more or less the same, without apparent end.
(Thanks Ashniet Caskortish for information Poplawsky & Das and Ali!)
5. Eternal Inflation :
Andrei Linde proposed by Alan Guth of ideas indicates that in the period of “inflation” of our universe, very close to the beginning, the conditions were so many more universes appeared from us, from “pockets” who they suffered their own process of expansion … which results in a fractal universe, repeated endlessly, and where each universe could have its own physical laws, different all together.
BONUS : 6. Mind blowing subject in Qur’an on Beginning of the universe and its end :
I personally never thought that we will discover what so called “The beginning of the Universe and its end” in Qur’an. But when I did my research on it, I was impressed by the words in it and asked myself, how could these two books talk about the universe, black holes, starts, expansion of the universe, forming of the stars, galaxies, etc. which was written thousands of years before?. And here is what the Qur’an says :
[Quran 41.11] Then He directed himself to the Heaven when it was SMOKE, and then said to it and to Earth: “Come willingly or by force” they said “We do come willingly”
[Quran 21.30] Do not those who disbelieve see that the heavens and the Earth were meshed together then We ripped them apart? And then We made of water everything living? Would they still not believe?
In the Quran the Heavens expanded from a single point.
[Quran 51.47] And the heaven, We built it with craftsmanship and We are still expanding.
There are three possibilities to how the universe could end: Big Crunch (Quran), Big Chill and the Big Rip. NASA recently ruled out the third scenario (No Big Rip; see also: Universe Today). This leaves the universe with only two possible endings: Big Chill or Big Crunch, depending on what this Dark Energy turns out to be. Learn more: Expansion of Universe in Quran. In the Quran God promises to make the Big Crunch:
[Quran 21.104] On the day when We will fold the heaven, like the folder compacts the books, and as We originated the first creation We shall return it; a promise (binding on Us); surely We will deliver.
Here God promises to make this Big Crunch however not by gravity but rather by folding the Heavens like a book, that is, by the same mechanism He controls wormholes. This means that this Big Crunch can begin and end in a fraction of a second!
Also after this Big Crunch is over, God promises to recreate those heavens and Earth once more before Judgment Day:
[Quran 14.48] On the day when Earth will be swapped by another Earth and so will be the heavens; and all (creatures) will resurrect before the One Dominant God.
[Quran 36.81] Is He not, who created the heavens and the Earth, capable of creating others like them? Yes, indeed! He is the All-Knowing Creator. His command, if He wanted a thing, is that He only says to it, “BE” and it becomes! So glorified is He in whose hands is the dominion of all things, and to Him you shall be returned.
There are many unanswered questions:
– Why the fundamental laws and constants of the universe seem to be adjusted to the existence of life?
– Why the guidance scale of the universe, objects 13 billion light years, appears to be aligned with the direction of our solar system? Is it a measurement error that has not yet been detected? Or is there some other reason?
– Are there other universes?
– And if it all started with a big bang … how all end?