The rhetoric is the discipline that studies and systematizes the language used in the different fields of knowledge (such as natural sciences, narratology, the political science and science education), allowing communication in each area get the objectives. It raises both communicative and aesthetic.
This discipline allows each field the language used (either oral or written) permitting simple association of concepts and, at the same time, it meets the three fundamental requirements of communication : delight, move and persuade.
It is said that rhetoric is “the art of speaking well” or even “the technical ability to express themselves in an appropriate way” because it has a resource system that serves the discursive construction and enrichment of the message. The elements used in speech, in turn, is closely interrelated.
It is important to clarify that the rhetoric does not study only the effectiveness of communication, but also the aesthetic aspects of it. This means that, from the point of view of rhetoric, discourse wants more than simply communicate.
The basis of the current rhetoric is based on the structure imposed by the ancient Greeks. For them, the composition of the speech consisted of two phases: the inventio (he analyzed the contents of a directory, which could be preset in memory or belong to society at large and established as contents of his speech) and the dispositio (the way that content is organized). In turn, structured speech into four parts: the exordium (the initial part trying to draw the listener’s attention and introduce the structuring of contents), the narratio (exhibition of the subject and the thesis), the argumentatio (the presentation of the reasons that supported the thesis) and peroratio (the summary of what was said).
What are rhetorical figures?
Allowing those resources are known as tropes alter the syntax to give a particular direction to the statement. They serve to divert the caller to a figurative of what is being expressed, avoiding focusing on the literal sense or in the actual order of the words meaning.
There are four types of Rhetorical Figures.
Figures of Diction: altering the composition of words or phrases can achieve a certain effect on partner. Figures of speech may be transformation or metaplasms (words and not the meanings are altered), of repetition (repetition of certain words used in the same address) of omission (certain elements are removed) and position (is change places certain elements within the same sentence).
Tropos: an expression is replaced by another to give a figurative sense to prayer. Among the best known tropes are the metaphor (a comparison in which the comparative element is not named), the Allegory (representation of an idea taking advantage of human forms, animals or everyday objects), the hyperbole (exaggeration of the truth , give more or less weight than actually has), the emphasis (use of a term in a specific and narrow sense) and irony (expression to imply the opposite of what is being said).
Figures Repeat: through repetition of a sound, word or sentence you can give the message a certain weight. Among the best known figures are the alliteration (the same sound is repeated to cause a certain sense), the concatenation (repetition of words that are joined in the speech to give a certain pattern or color to it) and lacrimation (is repeat a word that has already been used in the speech to bring closure paragraph causing a particular print).
Figures Construction: consists add or remove certain words or speech sounds without this rupture occurs in the sense. One of the best known is the repetition, which can be used at different times of speech to emphasize and make the interlocutor understand the meaning of the message, through the constant repetition of certain terms and discursive structures.
How to use rhetoric to get what you want – Camille A. Langston
THE USE OF RHETORIC AS ART OF PERSUASION
Although the term rhetoric has a pejorative meaning to refer to the use of reasons that are irrelevant, its most traditional sense refers to the art of well say, to give the effective language enough to persuade, ie to influence thinking or the behavior of others. Despite the significance of the phrase “I do not come with rhetorical” rhetoric is as honorable as the intentions of the person who uses art.
In classical antiquity, Aristotle, philosopher and teacher in Athens in the V century. BC, taught his disciples to analyze the different kinds of speeches that could be offered to different audiences according to the occasion. According to Aristotle, the true teacher should be able to deliver a speech on the subject to a group of citizens, another on the same subject the judge in your forum and a third during a solemn ceremony.
In Aristotle’s analysis of the factors that contribute to making persuasive speech and the separation of the components of rhetoric in categories, types of discourse, argument types and types of audience should be. His work “Rhetoric” provides a classification of speakers, speeches and the different effects of these depending on the type of audience. With a few tweaks, Aristotle’s observations have survived to this day and continue to be the basis for the formation of the broad categories into which the elements of the communication process are grouped.
Let us now see what persuasion requires the writer:
- Knowledge of the subject as a condition of credibility. Credibility rests on the ability to demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the matter, interest in him and objectivity. This a personality that will be accepted and respected by the reader is projected.
- plausible argument; that is, it provides reasoning and convincing evidence that appeals to logic and reason the reader. The logic to be provided is only necessary to convince the reader or readers (hence the convenience of knowing who the letter is addressed).
The development of the subject with persuasive purpose may be made by:
- Ø Induction.
- Ø Deduction.
- Ø Analog test.
The thesis must be approved by using representative samples; examples, cases, instances data. The number will depend on the readers to whom the trial is directed.
It is especially useful when focusing on a controversial issue because the deduction, moving from the general principle that a valid conclusion is still the same, also operates as a way of tilting the reader side of the conclusion.
The analog test
It is to relate or compare unknown to the reader with something that is familiar and thus offers a safe and comfortable base. The theme is developed deeper into the similarities between the objects being compared. The more incisive analysis, more persuasive force will the composition.
The pros and cons. The controversial or contentious issue in its development requires addressing not only the own argument, but the adversary. It is necessary to challenge the opinion of others to strengthen the position or own thesis.
Ignores the point of view of the opposition has little meaning and no merit, because you can not pass one’s opinion ignoring the others. When the adversaries arguments are weighted and compared with own, you can appreciate the real value of these and use the argument of greater weight in refuting the former. The higher the number of counterarguments to be able to destroy our present position, it will have greater strength. The controversial argument requires an organization theme that allows comparison and contrast of every argument. This comparison of the pros (own argument) and cons (adversary argument) is one of the pillars of the dialectical method. The mind swings like a pendulum between a trial and its opposite. The tactic of argument is to demolish the contrary assertions.