Summary and Analysis | “The Prince” by Niccolo Machiavelli Written
THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF PRINCIPALITIES AND HOW TO ACQUIRE
Principalities are either hereditary, when one family to reign in them over time, or new. The new, or are entirely, or as aggregates are hereditary state of the prince who acquires members, thus acquired are acquired by housewives or those of others, by luck or by virtue
It is easier to keep an inherited state, accustomed to a dynasty that one again as simply not alter the order established by the previous rulers, and temporize after the changes that may occur.
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THE MIXED PRINCIPALITIES
The states with the acquisition are added to an older or are from the same province, it’s easy to keep them, especially when they are not used to freedom, and to hold on to power, enough to have erased the line of prince the ruling because whenever their customs and advantages enjoyed sedate remain respected.
Only you can lose a lot of difficulty.
Colonies no cost, and are more faithful and pose less risk; and that the victims can not cause discomfort, because they are poor and isolated.
The prince who attach a province of customs, language and different from his organization must also become a champion and defender,devise to weaken the greater power and take care of that, under any pretext, including their status in a foreign as powerful as him.
Why did reign of Darius OCCUPIED BY ALEJANDRO NO rebelled against the successors of THIS AFTER DEATH
All principalities living memory have been governed in two different ways: either by a prince who chooses from among His servants, who are all ministers to help him govern, assisted by a prince or noble, no, the grace of the Lord, but to the antiquity of their lineage, should their position.These States and nobles have own subjects, who recognize them as lords and have them natural affection.While in the United governed the prince enjoys greater authority;that the entire province is not recognized sovereign but him, and if it is due to another, who also has no particular love him, it just makes for being a Minister and magistrate of the prince.
SO THAT MUST GOVERN CITIES OR principalities BEFORE BEING OCCUPIED, governed by its own laws.
There are three ways of holding a state before being acquired, was used to abide by its own laws and live in freedom: first destroy; deposed settling there; Finally, let it be governed by its laws, forcing pay tribute and establish a government composed of a small number of people, to take charge of ensuring the conquest. As the government knows that nothing can without the friendship and power of the prince, must not be repaired with the state means to keep him. For there is nothing better to preserve -if wants conservar- a person accustomed to live free to make their own rule by town citizens.
Indeed the only sure way to master used to live to livefree city is destroyed.Who owns a city well done and crush not wait to be crushed by it.
OF nuevo principalities that are acquired OWN PERSONAL WEAPONS AND TALENT
They acquire the principality with difficulty, but they keep it smooth, difficulties stem in part from the new laws and customs that are forced to introduce to establish the state and provide security.
If you want a good look at this part, we need to see if these innovators are themselves, or depend on others: that is, if you need to resort to plea for his work, or if they can impose by force.
Admittedly, these revolutionary face major difficulties, all the dangers arising in his way and only with great courage can overcome; but overcome obstacles, and once you have removed those who were envious of his virtues, live powerful, safe, honored and happy.
You have to add another lower-level single citizen who became prince having no debt to random chance; and only by the merits he was made to get him elected prince.
THE NEW PRICIPADOS that come with ARMS AND OTHER FORNTUNA
You can not behave otherwise when you have such courage and ambition
The new prince who must defend creates enemies, win friends, overcome by force or by fraud, be loved or fear of the people, respect and obey the soldiers, kill k can harm, replace with new old laws, be severe and kind, magnanimous and release, dissolve the militias infidels, create new ones, preserve the friendship of kings and princes willingly or attack him with suspicion; which is considered essential to this.
Principalities WHO CAME TO CRIMES BY PRINCIPADO
First case is one ascends to the principality on a path of wickedness and crime; and then if that becomes prince by the favor of the citizens.
Misused are those which, although little serious at first;before eventuallygrow to become extinct.Who proceeds differently, out of shyness or being misled, is always bound to be with the knife in his hand, and evil can tell his subjects whose recent offenses continued and still filled with mistrust.
The principality is created either by the people as the noble and noble when they see that they can not withstand the people, concentrate all authority in one of them and make Prince, but reaching the principality with help from the noble remains with more difficulty than to come by supporting the people, by those around him are considered equal and finds it difficult to command and manage them as the prince wants.
These principalities are in danger when they want to move from civil principality to principality since all these princes govern by themselves or through their judges, their tenure is insecure and dangerous, because it depends on the will of the people occupying the position of magistrates which can seize power and the prince surrounded by dangers not have time to assume full authority, as citizens and subjects, accustomed toreceive orders in similar trances are not willing to obey his.
AS FORCES MUST BE MEASURED all principalities
If a prince has such a state that can sustain itself, if it has in this case, to rely on the help of others.
A prince who rules a stronghold and the people who do not hate, nor can be attacked but it was, the attacker would have to withdraw without glory, are so variable that the things of this world that it is impossible for someone to stay with one years idly armies besieging a city
OF ecclesiastical principalities
The ecclesiastical principalities are those that all difficulties exist before possessing them, as are acquired or by value or by fate, and kept without the one nor the other because rely on old religious institutions are so powerful and of such quality, maintaining their princes in power whatever regardless of the way they come and live, these are the only states that have not defend;subjects and not the rule, are the only safe and happy principalities.
CLASSES OF distinatas wickedness and mercenaries SOLDIERS
The troops with which a prince defends his state are typical, mercenaries, auxiliaries, or mixed. The mercenaries and auxiliaries are useless and dangerous; and Prince whose government rests on mercenary soldiers will never be safe, because they are disunited, that are unfair ambitious, courageous friends, but cowardly when faced enemies; because they have discipline, and have fear of God or good faith as men. The captains of mercenaries or are men of merit are not; You can not trust them if they are because they always aspire to forge his own greatness, and trying to subdue the prince.
A principality or a republic should have their own militias;a principality that if the prince should lead the militias in person and make the job of captain
THE AUXILIARY, MIXED AND OWN SOLDIERS
Auxiliaries are those that are asked to a powerful prince to aid us, and defends these troops can be useful and good for their masters, but who calls are almost always fatal;because if they lose, is defeated, and if he wins, he becomes their prisoner, anyone who does not want to win has only served to these troops, far more dangerous than mercenary, because they are perfectly united and blindly obey their bosses , which it is immediate ruin
DUTIES OF A PRINCE WITH MILITARY FOR
A prince should never stop taking care of the military art, and during peacetime should be exercised only in the war;This can be done in two ways: with the action and with the study.With regard to action must be well-organized troops, constantly engaging in hunting in order to accustom the body fatigues and know the nature of the land, such a study learns two utilities: first you learn to know the region where one lives to defend it better;then under the knowledge of another where action is necessary so that the knowledge of another where necessary act.
Prodigality and avarice
Prodigality, practiced so you know which one is prodigal, injures;and moreover if the virtuous practice and as it should be practiced, the bounty will not be known and believe that there is a contrary vice, as a prince can not publicly practice this virtue without adversely, if it is sensible, that do not worry if it’s labeled a cheapskate because, in time to see his greed are enough entries to fend who makes war, and may undertake new business without taxing the people, it will always been more lavish, as practice generosity to all those who are not removed, that if numerous, greed and all those who are not given, they are few
OF CRUELTY and mercy; AND IF IT IS BETTER TO BE FEARED O AMDO be feared than loved
I declare that all princes should desire to be accounted merciful and not cruel. This a question arises whether it rather be loved than feared or feared than loved stated then that it is safer to be feared than loved. When the prince is leading his armies and has to govern thousands of soldiers, it is absolutely necessary not to worry whether it reputation for cruelty, for without this reputation can never be united and willing to fight any army.
As the love depends on the will of men and fear of the prince, a wise prince must rely on their own and not into others, but always trying to avoid hatred.
How princes should keep their promises
No longer understand how praiseworthy is the prince who meets their word that work honestly and not with malice, but are precisely those princes who have done less if given the sworn faith. A prince should know then behave like a beast and man; and he is forced to behave like a beast, that the prince should be transformed into fox and a lion because the lion does not know protect the fox traps or protect wolf, which only serve the qualities of the lion show little experience.
Men are so simple and so obey the needs of the moment, that one who deceives will always find who was fooled.
Having them and practice is always harmful, and have them appear useful.Okay appear pious, faithful, humane, religious, upright and also be effective;but you must be willing has to be willing to go to another extreme if necessary.
How you should avoid being despised and hated.
A prince must fear two things: on the inside, which will rise up the subjects; abroad, they attacked foreign powers. Well-organized states and wise princes have always tried not to exasperate the nobles and, in turn, be satisfied and happy people.
A prince must estimate the nobles but himself hated by the people, when the prince can not be avoided hated by one of the two parties should work to the larger group, and when this is not possible, lean towards the strongest .
IF THE STRENGTHS AND MANY OTHER THINGS THAT THE LEADERS ARE FREQUENTLY useful or not.
The weapons of the people become the prince and those who were suspicious happy, the faithful remain so supporters and subjects are made.
Some argue that a wise Prince should encourage certain cunning to crush resistance to his glory is accretive.
Laud both those who build fortresses, as those who do not build, but censurare all that, relying on the strengths, they despise are hated by the people.
HOW TO CONDUCT A PRINCE TO BE ESTIMATED.
Nothing makes a prince so estimable as big business and the example of rare virtues.
To benefit the Prince find surprising measures regarding the management, Prince should devise for looking great and illustrious in each of his acts, when the prince brave declared by one party, it triumphs that the it binds, albeit powerful, it remains at its discretion, will be linked by a bond of appreciation and affection; and men are never so wicked that, by giving proof of such ingratitude, subdue it; a prince should never ally with other more powerful to attack others but according to the above, when circumstances require because if you beat in their power, and rulers must do everything possible to not be available to others.
Prince lover of virtue and honor to show that they are distinguished in the arts.All cities are divided into guilds or corporations to which the prince should give them attention.
PRINCE OF SECRETARIES.
The first view we have of the trial of a prince is based on the men around him: if they are able and faithful may reputárselo wise, because I knew able to find them and keep them faithful; but when they are not, it can not be considered prudent a prince that the first mistake that is committed in this lesson.
For a minister there is a way that never fails when you see that a minister thinks more of him than one and that in any seeketh his advantage, we are in the presence of a minister who will never be good and in whom the prince never because you can trust that you are holding the status of another must never think of himself, but the sovereign, but rather remind the things that belong to him. For his part, Prince, to keep constant in their loyalty, you should consider the minister. Must honor it, enrich it and fill it charges, so you understand that you can not be without it, and the many honors not make him want more honors, great riches do not make you crave more wealth and many positions do you fear the changes politicians.
FLEE AS flatterers.
A wise prince should prefer to surround yourself with men of good judgment in your state, only ones that give freedom to tell the truth, even in the things which are interrogated and only them.
It is desirable that the good advice coming from whom they come, born of prudence of the prince and not the prudence of the prince of good advice.
WHY THE PRINCES OF ITALY HAVE LOST THEIR STATES.
Men earn much better with things present with past, and when these have advantage, the enjoy no inquiry; and as the prince did not detract in other things, they are always ready to defend. Thus, the Prince will have the double glory of having created a new rule and to have improved and fortified with good laws, good arms, good friends and good examples.
The only good, safe and durable defenses are those that depend on oneself and their virtues.
POWER OF FORTUNE in human affairs and the media to oppose him.
With the fortune that manifests with all its power where no prepared virtue and directs his impulses where they know that they have done no qualms dikes to contain it.
It looks than men to reach the proposed order comes in different forms: one with caution, another with momentum; one by violence, another by cunning; forbearing one another with its contrary; and everyone can succeed on such diverse media.
As fortune varies and men persist in proceeding the same way, they will be happy when they are aligned with luck and unhappy when they disagree with it, I think it is better to be impetuous and not cautious, because fortune is a woman and it makes necessary if there is to be submissive and zaherirla hit.And you see that is mastered by these rather than by acting with warmth and as a woman, she is a friend of young people who are less cautious and more fogosazo and impose more boldly.
Exhortation to Italy free of the barbarians.
No wonder that none has been able to do what hopefully your illustrious house, nor is it strange that after so many revolutions and uprisings warriors seem extinguished the military value of the soldiers. But it is because the old military organization was not good because nobody has been able to modify it. Nothing much to honor a man who just raised to power as new laws and new institutions designed for it, that if they are well grounded and bring something great in itself, makes him worthy of respect and admiration.
But in battles, and exclusive fault of weak heads ;, his role was not brilliant; by that they are able not obeyed; and they all think they can, but no one knew was that imposed by value and by his fortune, and that would make give to others.
Definition of individual and society and accompanying personal opinion regarding
Well before the opinion I think it’s very important to say that ami apparently the individual is the prince, and society are governed but these in turn are individuals no part my opinion that the consideration to Prince’s face the Circling the most creative and opaque part of individuals in the dangerous work of indefinite benefit of human reason and society. Usually it argues that history is the investigation of stumbling across contexts and extreme organizations. It is the sum of the dissolution of a universe, a new principle of reality in which the man returned to be the main concern of all things, whether the policy concerns to be the art of the possible, to Machiavelli it symbolized it must be organized in real media needs change he said, were drawn from the reflection of the world coarse and grouped status of his contemporaries courage. However in downtown Prince is the claim of the modern state as the articulator of national relations and the need for individuals to be released.
I found something very interesting to rise said the prince should be a business man or protected by fortune thus being clever should carefully choose his advisers and prevent you cede the smallest plot of authority; It is dedicated only to defend and extend their power by all means, including crime if necessary: better to be feared than to be loved of course, watching your reputation; its greatest strength is the attachment of his people. The hypocrisy becomes a duty. If he manages to preserve his life and his state as the means to be applied they will be judged honorable.
In proposing a model Cesare Borgia, Machiavelli remains within the logic of his conception, but involuntarily underscores the fragility of his aphorisms. Exaggerates certainly the greatness of purposes attributed to the son of Pope Alexander VI; Moreover, it is given the role in history fortune serves as explanation a little easier to go, fast and complete failure of his hero. Here I quote a criticism that I found very interesting I found on a Web page:
Niccolo Machiavelli’s work represents an interesting perspective to understand the social and political evolution of the modern world emerged in the Renaissance.
Since 1513, date of its publication until today, the impact of that treaty policy, the Prince has attracted the most complex and daring interpretations in studies of the phenomenon of power and the rulers themselves. — I will include here the views of some analysts of politics and history about the influences of Prince —
“Read Prince today is to remember the darker side of the transformation. Machiavelli was not a bad man, nor a murderer, not a cold-blooded schemer. On the contrary, was an ardent supporter of the republican institutions, he perceived more clearly than the rest of their countrymen. As no state could thrive where morality had failed, as had happened in Italy “. (RHS Crossman) “It was the implacable realism of Machiavelli allowing early diagnosis nascent sense of European order, establishing that suited ideological community which was part and identify effective means to achieve them from situations real they predominated in Italy if time “.