The apical pleural thickening refers to the in thickness of the apical portion of the lungs. Lung apex is rounded upper portion of the lungs.
The lungs are by two thin layers of tissue called pleura. The pleura may become more rigid and their elasticity due to infection or other disease processes such as mesothelioma or asbestosis.
When the pleural membranes become rigid, breathing becomes increasingly difficult due to the restriction of the capacity expansion of the lungs during inhalation.
Apical thickening symptoms are similar to other respiratory disease processes. They include shortness of breath, chest pain and shortness of breath during exercise.
There are several causes of apical thickening as it is the result of any inflammation in the lungs. Causes include bacterial pneumonia, chemotherapy, infection and lupus. Lupus is a key factor as it causes inflammation in various tissues of the .
The only treatment is surgical as thickened areas of the lungs are made up of scar tissue and should be removed. This will produce a pressure relief allowing the lungs to expand freely.